Metallurgy and weapons of Kazakhs

The ancient miners had developed oxidized ores (malachite, azurite, kasiterit) with rich content of copper and tin. Developed the ore-bearing veins, loose ore was mined "calowanie", with chisels and hammers of stone. Tight-used method of "fire penetration", in which the surface of the core, or in the pit, made the fire, and when the rock is heated, watered it with water, causing the crack, and then worked with hammers and Kyle. The rock containing metal was pulled to the surface in leather bags. Also used under the excavation of the ore body, after which hammers beat off pieces of overhanging blocks of ore. For sinking of deep shafts used wooden supports. Near the mine near the water, the mined ore was crushed and washed, separating it from the waste rock. The fine-grained ore was carried to settlements where it was melted in special melting furnaces, the remains of which were found during the excavations of settlements on Atasu, Suuk-Bulak, near the village of Kanai.

Ore smelting

For ore melting charcoal was used, quartz and ochre served as flux(to reduce temperature and facilitate separation of metal from waste rock). Copper and tin ore was smelted separately, and later when casting an object, the necessary amount of tin was added to copper. In order to melt iron, the ancient metallurgists began to use the method of raw blowing. The melting process looked like this: at first, the furnace was made of stone, which was alternately loaded with layers of charcoal and iron ore. Then the furnace was tightly clogged and covered with clay, and then with the help of bellows the hot air was pumped into the furnace. The temperature in the furnace rose to about 1200° C, the iron is not melted entirely, but cleared of oxygen. Then the oven broke and was out of the bloom of porous iron product from which it can later forge any of the products.

Manufacture of weapons

Copper and brass in the base were used for the manufacture of scabbards, and iron and Bulat were the main materials for blades. Bulat steel in Kazakh "Almas" (there were 2 grades - red and white) was used for blades, sabers, swords, spearheads, peak. Lead and tin were used to secure the handles of the knife, sabers to the handle of the blade, for soldering metal elements.

A common weapon was the curve saber "Almas Kylysh". It was made of damask steel, handle and hilt were decorated with precious stones. To the cutting arms beyond the "Kalys" includes straight sword – "Semser", Kazakh saber – "Sapa".

The primary missile weapon was the bow and arrow. The battle bow was made of several parts made of different materials: wood, bone, horn, birch bark, tendons and leather. Arrowheads had a different shape: tetrahedral, which could penetrate any shield and wooden cylindrical, used to knock a man off his horse. The quiver for carrying arrows was called "koramsak", a separate case for the bow – "Sadak". This term designated the entire set with naluch, quiver and sword belt for wearing them. The bow was assembled from several parts made of wood, bone, horn, birch bark, tendons and leather.

Weapons were used - Yalta. This axe with a sharp blade resembling a Crescent moon, and obuh, she had a long wooden handle. The blade was of medium width, however, were the weapons with modified blade.

The Kazakhs had two types of stabbing weapons: "Nayza" - a spear with a wide tip and" sung " - a long peak with a thin tip, designed to defeat the enemy in armor. The tips of the spears were indented, the cross-section is often diamond-shaped.

Mace "shokpar", made of a single piece of wood in the form of a heavy club with a head, shackled with metal or studded with pointed spikes. Mace "shokpar", made of a single piece of wood in the form of a heavy club with a head, shackled with metal or studded with pointed spikes.

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